Research Paper Sources

  1.  “Nonmedical Use of Adderall[R] among Full-Time College Students. The NSDUH Report.”Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. SAMHSA’s National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI). P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20847-2345. Tel: 800-729- 6686; Tel: 301-468-2600; Web Site: http://ncadi.samhsa.gov, 07 Apr. 2009. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED525060&gt;.
  2. Abuse, National Institute on Drug. “Trends & Statistics.”NIDA. N.p., 24 Apr. 2017. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics&gt;.
  3. Griffin, Kenneth W., and Gilbert J. Botvin. “Evidence-Based Interventions for Preventing Substance Use Disorders in Adolescents.”Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 2010. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2916744/&gt;.
  4. “Consequences.” Consequences of College Drinking. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <https://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/statistics/consequences.aspx&gt;.

1.)

The first source on the nonmedical use of Adderall among college students explores the negative effects of unprescribed substance use with a focus on Adderall. The article tackled every angle with a focus on statistics, specific cases, and even insight into behavioral patterns. For example, the articles stated that college aged students who used Adderall non-medically were more likely to have used other illicit drugs without a prescription. Information much like this is present throughout the entire article and such information thoroughly backs my claims. This article was crucial in providing several statistics for my paper such as substance use rates comparing college aged individuals with non-college aged individuals. Additionally, this article served as a connector between drug abuse and the college campus which is the central focus of the paper.

2.)

This source is a page purely dedicated to statistics revolving around substance abuse hence the name of the site (National Institute of Drug Abuse). The numbers within this web page were very valuable in proving just how massive the issue of drug abuse is, thus backing my points even further. This source, as well as other statistical sources, were necessary because numbers never lie and do a much better job convincing readers than words usually can. An example of the data found on this page would be the toll on our nation in response to substance abuse including drugs such as tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit drugs. In a paper such as mine where there are several points to counter, having statistics to back any and all of my claims is very beneficially in alleviating any bias.

3.)

This source from the US National Library of Medicine discussed methods of preventing Substance use disorders as well as factors that lead to substance abuse. In particular, this article emphasized using family and environment based programs to help deal with the disorder because most drug issues stem from one’s family problems or the environment that the patient surrounds his/herself with. The article agrees with my thesis that drug abuse is a growing problem in the nation and deserves considerable attention. This article provides several solutions to the problem that I could implement in my paper, thus leading me to believe that this article would benefit the paper.

4.)

This source is credible in that the cite is called College Drinking Prevention with a .gov at the end and that there is a list of sources sited that all back the numbers within the page. For these reasons, I deemed this source worthy of placement within my paper. The central argument of my research paper is that there is an outstanding issue surrounding drug as well as alcohol use. The drug portion has already been covered by previous sources, but this source specifically covers the alcohol area. The statistics held within emphasize the harmful effects of drinking and what it causes, whether that be violence, arrest, or sexual assault. The aim of this paper is to back the idea of heightened monitoring of drug and alcohol consumption, so these numbers mesh nicely with this focus.

 

Together, these sources put an explanation point at the end of each of my claims about the harmful effects of excessive drug and alcohol use. They provide ample statistics, real world examples, and potential solutions that, when combined, can hopefully convince anyone that there is a real problem in the way most universities handle drug and alcohol issues. By using the US as a whole and then narrowing the scope to college campuses, the outlying issues become prominent early, and from there the numbers state the remainder of the story.

 

 

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College Advocacy Research Topics

The topic that most interests me is forced immunizations on college students. When I went to high school in California, a new law was being implemented concerning immunizationimmunizations. Before the summer of 2016, students could refuse immunizations on the grounds of personal or religious reasons. The new law ended this policy, and now only medical waivers are suitable exemptions. Specifically at UD, the MMR and meningococcal vaccine are required. I think the issue of the immunization controversy is interesting because although I believe immunizations are necessary for public health and should be enforceable, those who disagree for religious or other personal reasons do have a valid argument. I’d like to explore this issue and focus on the necessity of immunizations and why their benefits justify their necessitation, with a focus on the benefits of the immunizations required at immunizationsUD. Questions I’d like to explore are: to what extent can a college in a democratic nation with the freedom of religion enforce immunizations on those who disagree because of their religion? do the benefits of immunizations for the public health and security of the nation outweigh the concerns of the few who are against them? what are the advantages of immunizations? what legal rights do those against immunizations have?

Another topic I’d like to consider is the issue of guns on college campuses. There is a growing number of colleges that allow guns. Eight states allow guns at colleges, and 24 gunsothers allow the individual colleges in their state to decide. A study done by Johns Hopkins University in 2016 determined that campus carry laws are “unlikely to deter rampage shooters and may in fact lead to more injuries and deaths.” Some argue that guns make the public safer, but as demonstrated by the Johns Hopkins study, it can also be argued that guns lead to increased violence. Others believe that prohibiting guns on campus would be an infringement on the second amendment right to bear arms. Although I don’t believe that guns should be permitted at college, those who argue for the protection of the second amendment do have a sound point. Questions I would consider are: to what extent can a college, established within a nation that has the right to bear arms, restrict that right? what are the dangers of allowing guns to be carried on campuses?

The third topic I would consider is the subject of internet privacy. With the recent repeal of certain internet privacy rules, broadband companies can now use the sensitive data (i.e. browsing history, geolocation, and medical and financial information) of their customers without permission. Particularly with college students who use technology extensively, internet privacy is extremely important. I think internet privacy for college o-internet-privacy-facebookstudents would be a valuable issue to explore because internet privacy is esteemed by the public but is sometimes relinquished for the benefit of businesses. Questions I would pursue are: to what extent can college students expect their online actions to be private when there is no written national amendment concerning internet privacy? what are the benefits of relinquishing online privacy? what is currently private online for college students?

Exploring Research Topics

Question 1How do we draw a link between the educated women on college campuses and the problem of the lack of education for girls in third world countries?

Background / My Motivation:  The organization Girl Up raises awareness and money for the lack of education for girls in developing countries. The movement participants are mostly high school students, but college students can make an impact in this movement as well. I’m interested in investigating this topic because I’m a girl and I know how important getting an education is.

Information / Arguments: I hope to find that many college students have an interest in this topic. I also want to find more evidence that there are already similar movements on campuses. I would argue that besides Doctors and Engineers Without Borders, there should be “Educators Without Borders” or other similar programs. I would also argue that college students want to get involved in these types of activities but they can not because they do not exist.

Question 2Why do politicians deny climate change if it is a “sure thing” according to scientists?

Background / My MotivationI trust science because one of the goals of science is to be accurate. Also, I’m a chemical engineering major. I’ve never understood why some politicians don’t acknowledge the effects of climate change and what it’s doing to the planet. Is there some other factor or motivation involved?

Information / ArgumentsI hope to find that there are economic or political goals that motivate the politicians to deny global warming. My arguments will be that climate change is backed by lots of scientific data and that there are many reasons why denying global warming is beneficial for politicians.

Question 3: Is there really a gender wage gap in the United States? If so, what can college students effectively do to reduce the gap?

Background / My Motivation: Everyone knows the slogan, “equal pay for equal work,” which refers to the gender wage gap in the United States. This slogan is old, it has been repeated too many times, and it is hardly effective. Why hasn’t this problem been fixed by now?

Information / Arguments: I hope to find that the gender wage gap has been fixed, but it’s likely that it hasn’t been fixed in all aspects of U.S. labor. Therefore, I will argue that there needs to be a renewed and reinvigorated movement that tackles the problem and finally topples it. This movement, I will argue, will start on college campuses.

Team Core4 – Legalizing Marijuana

The legalization of marijuana in the United States is a controversial issue. Most people tend to have a definite opinion as to whether states, or even the federal government, should legalize the drug. Many people have good reason to believe we should continue along the path of legalization, and here are a few reasons why.

Fewer arrests for nonviolent crimes.

Fewer people in prison for nonviolent crimes

  • According to the ACLU, there were 8.2 million arrests between 2001-2010 that were related to weed
  • Possession accounted for 88% of these arrests
  • The data also revealed “significant racial bias,” with black people being 3.73 times “more likely than whites to be arrested for marijuana.” In some states, this statistic rises to be 7.5 or even 8.5 times more likely.
  • $3,613,969,972 is spent by states every year to enforce weed-related legislation

8.2 million arrests. That means paperwork had to be done for 8.2 million arrests, time had to be spent on all of these incidents, money was spent on lawyers, and people were taken away from their lives to serve on juries. Imagine if these 8.2 million marijuana-related arrests did not occur. Imagine how police resources could have been better focused. All of this time, money, and energy could have been channeled toward arresting violent and dangerous criminals: rapists, kidnappers, armed robbers.

Additionally, even if all of these people did not receive prison time, a large amount of money is spent to keep these people in prison for nonviolent crimes. In New York City, the average cost of a single prisoner per year is $167,731. Say half of those arrested for marijuana infractions were sentenced to at least one year in prison. Using the NYC cost of a prisoner, this equates to $687,697,100,000 spent in just one year for these people to be in prison – again, for a nonviolent crime. Imagine if we spent this much less on prisons every year. This money could be channeled towards something that actually benefits the majority of citizens, such as improving infrastructure. Or, maybe, some of it could be used for prison reform. Prisons could become more like those in other countries, where prisoners are taught life skills and are rehabilitated, so that they don’t wind up back in a prison when they are finally released. There are so many ways that money could benefit the country, and keeping people in prison for marijuana is not one of them.

Safety.

Nonviolent drug

Most commonly, marijuana has a relaxing effect on users. It doesn’t hype people up the same way other substances do, such as alcohol. Many have heard, seen, or been a part of drunken fights, but violence induced by marijuana is a very rare occurrence. When it does occur, it is because of some type of fear or paranoia that causes a sudden rush. Apart from this, there has been no direct causation established between marijuana use and violence.

Knowing what you buy

If it is sold from a legitimate dispensary, there’s less of a chance of it being laced with something dangerous, such as harder drugs. Lacing is a technique that can be used by dealers to get weed-smokers addicted to harder drugs without them even knowing. This is clearly dangerous, and is something that can be controlled better by legalizing weed and selling it from a dispensary.

Just like everything else that is sold, there would have to be labels indicating what strain it is, maybe what the common side effects of using that strain are, the %THC, and other information that will make it safer to buy from a dispensary than on the streets.

Overdosing

Weed also is not a drug from which one can overdose. There are no recorded deaths from a marijuana overdose. According to the National Cancer Institute, it isn’t even possible to overdose on weed because marijuana affects pathways in the boy called “cannaboid receptors,” which do not affect breathing. Therefore, no matter how much one ingests, marijuana cannot cause someone to stop breathing.

Other statistics show that someone would have to ingest about 40,000 times the amount of marijuana that is typically consumed in order to die. While one can take too much of it, overdosing is not a possibility.

 

In addition to these, there are many other reasons behind legalizing weed. This includes the fact that weed can be taxed if it is legally sold, and the tax revenue can be used to help communities. For example, the money collected from taxing weed can be used to improve schools – new textbooks, new computers, fixing health concerns in the school, and many other issues can be addressed if schools had more money; this is one way to find more money for schools. There are also medicinal purposes behind using marijuana, such as a sleep-aid, an anxiety relief substance, and it even has uses in treating more serious conditions, such as Crohn’s disease.

 

 

 

Core4: UD Student Health Concerns

A cause that is important to my group, the Core4, is the varying student health concerns that undergraduates all over the country are experiencing, specifically freshmen, including the ones here at UD. While student health concerns range from lack of exercise/poor dieting, to unaddressed mental health concerns, to unsafe-sex practices (and the STDs that may follow), it’s important to educate students from the beginning of their time at college. Many college freshmen are experiencing a time when they are out in the world on their own for the first time, making it a very influential time, which can be positive or negative (depending on who is influencing them). This is an important cause to support because college students, and students in general, are the future of the world. If we do not take time to focus on our health now and the importance of making the healthy choices that we should, we will fail to see the importance of passing that information on to future generations. A lot about who we will become is determined by the health-related choices that we make everyday—and they are everywhere. From what we choose to fuel our bodies with in the dining hall, to the destructive substances that we choose that ultimately hurt us, we are in control. From taking the elevator to taking the stairs in various buildings on campus, we are in control. From using a condom when being sexually active to having unprotected sex, we are in control. That’s why it’s important to educate the person in control, us students, on how to healthfully use that power. A student group that strives to do that here at UD is Healthy HENS. Although it’s a good start, way too many students are continually choosing an unhealthy way of life that affects not only their bodies but their minds too. By supporting the cause of improving the physical health of students, we can potentially have a positive impact on their mental health as well. This is still an important cause to support because although we have the research and the knowledge behind healthful decisions, that information just isn’t getting the exposure that it needs to be. It’s our time, here at UD, to take a stand and address student health concerns more than they are currently being considered.

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Girl Up! (Team Amigas)

Girl Up is a club dedicated to raising awareness and funds for girls education in developing countries. In high school, I was a member of a local chapter of the club, and I was given the opportunity to attend the Girl Up Leadership Summit in Washington, D.C. From all of these experiences, I gained a lot of knowledge about issues related to girls’ education in developing countries. I learned that when women are included in the workforce, the economy of a developing country improves significantly. Furthermore, giving girls official birth certificates allows them to be enrolled in schools. Not only a national movement, this movement is important to the U.S. specifically. Former First Lady Michelle Obama started a campaign called Let Girls Learn related to the movement. As a result of the efforts of Let Girls Learn and Girl Up members and activists, the U.S. Congress passed the Girls Count Act. This law helps ensure that girls in developing countries are registered at birth.

On the other hand, the students at the University of Delaware do not seem as motivated about this movement as other movements. There are not many clubs centered around promoting education in developing regions. Instead of looking at this as a negative, we can use it as motivation to encourage students to gather together to support this movement. Furthermore, this cause is easy to support because fundraisers are easy to plan. Organizations such as Girl Up take the money raised by fundraisers and do the grassroots work themselves, making it easy for anyone, anywhere to get involved. Lastly, as college students, we understand the importance of getting a quality education. Therefore, we are motivated to raise money and awareness for education in places where education is lacking. In summary, my group should focus on the movement for bringing education opportunities to girls in third-world countries because the University of Delaware does not have many similar clubs, it is easy to support, and it is relatable for college students.

Student Debt Platform

For the issue of student debt, an online platform proves vital and encouraging to helping quell the problem.  The internet stands a great means to reach almost everyone in today’s world, especially college students and college graduates, who the issue has the greatest impact on.  Although this issue affects many people decades after graduation, it poses the greatest impact in the short term, so the young age of those affected the most propels for greater spread through social media.  As younger individuals are more inclined to use social media, the ability to reach a larger audience, by the means of twitter, etc., proves easier.  Likewise, the staggering statistics set forth in various website platforms proves vital in spreading the extent of such an issue.  One website that I feel does a great job of doing so is debtcollective.org.  Upon entering the website, the visitor sees the amount of reported debt on the website in the United States.  Even though many people will not have reported their debt, the number presented is still astounding, standing well into the one hundred millions.  Additionally, the website provides links to several articles that speak to the injustice of student debt that many people face and proves easy to navigate.  Moreover, it provides a platform for people to debate on ways to promote advocacy and direct action on how to combat the issue, and as a result, gathers people into a more cohesive unit and allows for greater spread of the problem.  The website also launched Rolling Jubilee, a project that intends to abolish student debt.  This website furthers awareness on the topic, allowing for users to spread the word through twitter and by providing videos ranging from information on the issue to actual student protests that have occurred as a result of student debt.

Much like the websites above, I intend to make my website easy to navigate from topic to topic.  I also hope to present the information and statistics in the most efficient way possible as the two websites have done, highlighting the stats that validate the great extent of the issue.  Furthermore, the use of various pictures and videos aided in the experience of the websites as it created a greater emotional response to the students who are impacted, so I hope to incorporate such visuals in order to create a similar effect.  Overall, the most important aspect of my website will be to help the reader understand how truly comparable the issue of student debt is, and that there are several ways to combat the issue and lessen the burden it places on countless people throughout the nation.

A Mass Movement Before the Rise of Social Media

Since my movement took place in the 1960s (Anti-Vietnam War), the online platform was not a part of this movement. The internet was being invented around the same time that this movement was gaining support and strength, so the supporters of the movement had to find another way to spread their message. As I was doing research, I discovered that a big way that this anti-war movement spread and caught attention was through music. Since online platforms like Twitter, Facebook, news sites, etc. didn’t exist to spread a mass message quickly and to a lot of people, many popular artists spread the word through their songs. Some examples of these artists are Jimi Hendrix, Country Joe and the Fish, Bob Dylan, and John Lennon. Many of these artists were prominent figures and constantly had attention from the press as well, which also helped to spread their message.

This particular movement has ended, but there have been many other peace protests and anti-war protests since then, such as the anti-Iraq War demonstrations. Since this movement has ended, I think the purpose of my website will be more to provide information about this historical movement more than trying to get people to join a particular movement/belief. In order to portray a comprehensive view of this movement, I want to incorporate a lot of media into my website. I’m planning to embed multiple videos of popular anti-war songs so the audience can see how music was used heavily as a political tool at the time. It’s quite different to the way music is now. I’m also going to map out this movement in a timeline with pictures so the audience can easily visualize the process of the anti-Vietnam War movement. My website will also include multiple pages focusing on different parts of the movement (Purpose, About, Cause, etc.) so that the information is well-organized and easy to browse through. WordPress also has a helpful tool called Text Widget which allows you to add text or HTML to the sidebar of your site. I was thinking I could use this tool to add links to related resources or links to my other pages.

Although the online platforms were not used at the time of this movement, I can use the accessibility and interactivity of online platforms in order to inform my audience of this particular movement in history.

Social Media Builds(?) Healthy Minds

Online platforms and social media are very important for the mental health movement because both the problem and the solution are spread through the Internet. For example, the ideologies of the “pro-ana” movement, a counter movement to the mental health movement that promotes anorexia as a lifestyle, is spread through blogs and photos. Here is an example:

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On the other hand, it is very easy to spread awareness of the mental health problem to many people with the use of online platforms and social media. For example, Active Minds, a college-centered foundation that reduces the stigma of mental health, has a website, a Twitter account, a Facebook page, a Pinterest site, and a YouTube channel. Each of these social media sites are used differently; for example, the YouTube channel has videos about mental health, the Pinterest site has inspirational photos promoting a positive mental health, and the Twitter account has statistics about mental health. On Pinterest, Active Minds has different boards for different topics that allow users to browse the topics they are interested in. On the main website, Active Minds has a central column for current news, different pages for different resources, and side bars dedicated to helping the readers get involved. In general, the front page has previews of information found in the pages, and users can read more in depth by clicking on individual pages.

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I want to format my blog a similar way to document the mental health movement. I will break my blog into the follow three pages: “Definition,” “Examples,” and “Conclusions”. On the “Definition” page, I will give background on the movement and provide statistics so that readers unfamiliar with the topic will understand the issue. On the “Examples” page, I will document the mental health movement at different colleges. On the “Conclusions” page, I will evaluate the success of the movement. Similar to the Active Minds website, on the front page, there will be boxes with previews of the information from each of the pages. My page will be useful both to users who know little and to users who know a lot about the movement. Individuals of different knowledge levels can customize their experience on my blog by reading the different pages.

A Platform for Change

As technology becomes increasingly relevant in the twenty-first century, the circulation of thought is increasing in speed and efficiency, allowing ideas to spread from person to person, then state to state, and sometimes, even country to country, within a matter of days. The movement I have chosen to delve into, the anti-rape culture/sexual assault on campus movement, uses the power of online platforms in several ways, one of which is to provide an anonymous way for victims to reach out and speak about sexual assault without disclosing their identity. On platforms such as Twitter, Instagram, and Tumblr, victims can discuss their feelings with others who understand what they are going through, and talk about how to cope with post traumatic stress and anxiety that prevent them from reaching out or talking about what happened to the police or school authorities. Another way this movement uses online platforms is to reach out to people about different gatherings, marches, and protests that are happening across the country such as the Anti-Rape Marches and Slut Walks in Philadelphia, Los Angeles, New York, and several other large metropolitan areas. Facebook groups, especially, are conducive to bringing people together for these events because once one person clicks the “Interested” or “Going” buttons, all of their Facebook friends can see this, and the event instantly gains exposure to all of their hundreds/thousands of friends. In this way, the word gets out quickly, and suddenly, after a mere two days of the event’s online fruition, hundreds of thousands of people are exposed to it, and many of them will decide to attend.it.jpg

Media is also incredibly important to my movement, in that humans, by nature, are visual beings, and photographs and videos tend to appeal to their emotions more than just words. Personally, I feel very empowered when I see pictures on Instagram and Tumblr of women holding up signs that say things like, “I was wearing this when I was raped”, while they are dressed in a simple tee-shirt and jeans, implying that rape has nothing to do with the victim’s clothing, provocative or not. It is NEVER the victim’s fault. Because such visuals are so powerful, I will include many on my webpage, especially on the home tab, in order to catch visitor’s attentions and appeal to their pathos the same way that Instagram posts from the marches appealed to mine.