Research Paper Sources

  1.  “Nonmedical Use of Adderall[R] among Full-Time College Students. The NSDUH Report.”Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. SAMHSA’s National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI). P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20847-2345. Tel: 800-729- 6686; Tel: 301-468-2600; Web Site: http://ncadi.samhsa.gov, 07 Apr. 2009. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED525060&gt;.
  2. Abuse, National Institute on Drug. “Trends & Statistics.”NIDA. N.p., 24 Apr. 2017. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics&gt;.
  3. Griffin, Kenneth W., and Gilbert J. Botvin. “Evidence-Based Interventions for Preventing Substance Use Disorders in Adolescents.”Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 2010. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2916744/&gt;.
  4. “Consequences.” Consequences of College Drinking. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <https://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/statistics/consequences.aspx&gt;.

1.)

The first source on the nonmedical use of Adderall among college students explores the negative effects of unprescribed substance use with a focus on Adderall. The article tackled every angle with a focus on statistics, specific cases, and even insight into behavioral patterns. For example, the articles stated that college aged students who used Adderall non-medically were more likely to have used other illicit drugs without a prescription. Information much like this is present throughout the entire article and such information thoroughly backs my claims. This article was crucial in providing several statistics for my paper such as substance use rates comparing college aged individuals with non-college aged individuals. Additionally, this article served as a connector between drug abuse and the college campus which is the central focus of the paper.

2.)

This source is a page purely dedicated to statistics revolving around substance abuse hence the name of the site (National Institute of Drug Abuse). The numbers within this web page were very valuable in proving just how massive the issue of drug abuse is, thus backing my points even further. This source, as well as other statistical sources, were necessary because numbers never lie and do a much better job convincing readers than words usually can. An example of the data found on this page would be the toll on our nation in response to substance abuse including drugs such as tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit drugs. In a paper such as mine where there are several points to counter, having statistics to back any and all of my claims is very beneficially in alleviating any bias.

3.)

This source from the US National Library of Medicine discussed methods of preventing Substance use disorders as well as factors that lead to substance abuse. In particular, this article emphasized using family and environment based programs to help deal with the disorder because most drug issues stem from one’s family problems or the environment that the patient surrounds his/herself with. The article agrees with my thesis that drug abuse is a growing problem in the nation and deserves considerable attention. This article provides several solutions to the problem that I could implement in my paper, thus leading me to believe that this article would benefit the paper.

4.)

This source is credible in that the cite is called College Drinking Prevention with a .gov at the end and that there is a list of sources sited that all back the numbers within the page. For these reasons, I deemed this source worthy of placement within my paper. The central argument of my research paper is that there is an outstanding issue surrounding drug as well as alcohol use. The drug portion has already been covered by previous sources, but this source specifically covers the alcohol area. The statistics held within emphasize the harmful effects of drinking and what it causes, whether that be violence, arrest, or sexual assault. The aim of this paper is to back the idea of heightened monitoring of drug and alcohol consumption, so these numbers mesh nicely with this focus.

 

Together, these sources put an explanation point at the end of each of my claims about the harmful effects of excessive drug and alcohol use. They provide ample statistics, real world examples, and potential solutions that, when combined, can hopefully convince anyone that there is a real problem in the way most universities handle drug and alcohol issues. By using the US as a whole and then narrowing the scope to college campuses, the outlying issues become prominent early, and from there the numbers state the remainder of the story.

 

 

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Greek Life and Mental Health Sources

  1. Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J., Kate B. Carey, and Michael P. Carey. “Health Behavior and College Students: Does Greek Affiliation Matter?” Journal of behavioral medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Feb. 2008. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. This is a scholarly article written by NIH which is a government organization. This is an incredibly credible source that explores the topic of Greek affiliation from a strictly psychological standpoint.
  2. Chapman Body Matter. pp. 1–47, Chapman Body MatterThis is a source that focuses on women, specifically. This is a longer (47 page) article that really goes in depth about the psychological impacts of sorority involvement. As a more detailed source, it will provide me with a plethora of information and statistics/results from various psychological studies about the impact of joining Greek organizations. It explores both sides of the argument and presents concurrences from various studies that have been done.
  3. Mercuro, Anne, et al. “The Effects of Hazing on Student Self-Esteem: Study of Hazing Practices in Greek Organizations in a State College.” The Effects of Hazing on Student Self-Esteem: Study of Hazing Practices in Greek Organizations in a State College – Ramapo Journal of Law & Society, Ramapo College, 6 Mar. 2014, http://www.ramapo.edu/law-journal/thesis/effects-hazing-student-self-esteem-study-hazing-practices-greek-organizations-state-college/. Accessed 28 Apr. 2017. This source provides a counterargument that discusses, specifically, the psychological effects of hazing on fraternity men.
  4. Bruce, Michelle. “Greek Life Builds Confidence and Success.” The Mu, Monmouth University, 22 Feb. 2011, blogs.monm.edu/mu/2011/02/22/greek-life-builds-confidence-and-success/. Accessed 28 Apr. 2017. This is a source that underscores my argument by discussing a personal account about the positive effects of Greek life.
  5. Donato, Andrew De, and James Thomas. “The Effects of Greek Affiliation on Academic Performance.” https://Sites.duke.edu/Jamesthomas/Files/2015/07/De-Donato-Thomas-Greek-Effects-Draft.pdf, Duke University, 5 July 2015, https://sites.duke.edu/jamesthomas/files/2015/07/De-Donato-Thomas-Greek-Effects-Draft.pdf. Accessed 28 Apr. 2017. This is an article published by Duke University that provides insight from both sides of the argument.

An important note to take into account when researching sources for a paper is to  make sure the sources are credible by filtering them by top-level domain. I did not utilize any sources that were not either “.edu”, “.gov”, or “.org” because then I would not be able to tell whether or not they were written by a reliable author with valid information about the subject on hand. I also made sure to include a variety of sources, including a personal account written on a university blog. However, while looking up sources to use, I found that the greatest proportion of reliable, relevant sources I chose to include came from universities that had done previous research about the impact of Greek life on mental health in order to provide prospective participants with conducive information that could influence their choice as to whether they decide to join or to opt out. As for the information, I included sources that argued both sides. One counterargument source was one that discussed hazing in fraternities and some negative mental impacts it may have such as PTSD, extremely out of range stress and anxiety levels, and an overall prolonged state of fear. On the other hand,  I mainly included sources to back up my thesis that also provided evidence for the argument that joining Greek life has an overall positive impact on mental health.

Research Paper Topics

When trying to decide on a research argument, topics that I have an interest in should obviously be explored. Arguments that involve sports, cultural diversity, and public health are probably more down my alley so my topics deal with these three areas of research.

Question 1: Should universities have such a large portion of funds invested in athletic programs?

This topic is brought up very frequently because of the issues of student debt and quality of education that surround it. Students are upset because numerous schools put money into sports that are drawn from their tuition. There is also the converse argument that the athletic programs are generating a profit, so ultimately it benefits the university.

Motivation: Too often I hear people complain about how easy the student athletes have it. They receive a full scholarship and then just take the easiest classes. I think about it differently. A lot of recruited student athletes desperately need the scholarship. Athletics can be their only way out of poverty. Also, maintaining a balance of commitment to both education and athletics is very difficult. I want to explore this because I also value both athletics and education.

Information and Arguments: I hope to find information and statistics that display the statistics for money placed into athletics programs at major colleges. Ideally, data on the revenue that these schools receive would be very effective in backing my argument on the productivity of emphasis on athletics for schools as a business. Another argument I could include is the idea that placing too much money into athletic programs hinders the educational quality of the university. This cannot be true since there are so many schools that are sport great educational programs as well as athletic programs (Examples include Duke, Stanford, Northwestern, and many more). My major points will probably be the three stated.

 

Question 2: To what extent does race influence opportunity?

This topic is one we hear typically in the debate for equality between men and women, however, there still may be a prevalent disparity between the hiring or acceptance of people of certain races or religions. This is a very touchy topic, but it is still very important because the overall goal for society should be that every individual regardless of race, gender, or religious receives identical opportunities.

Motivation: This topic is important to me because I am a person of color and I am saddened whenever I hear stories of discrimination. As a college student, I want to receive similar opportunities for success as my peers of other races or faiths. The hard work I put in should be rewarded and the same goes for all students.

Information and Arguments: As of now, I don’t know how great the difference is between the races in hiring and such opportunities, but hopefully I can find some data that presents this information and the differences will not be negligible. I could also mix gender into the argument as well, so a total analysis of racial and gender differences could vividly paint the picture of the situation. I would make the argument that people of color perhaps don’t receive identical treatment as other do when it comes to the work force. Additionally, I would argue the reasoning behind this and how certain races are stereo-typically veered towards jobs that ‘suit’ them.

 

Question 3: Should all campuses be smoke free zones?

Smoking whether it be cigarettes or any other drug is harmful for the user, but it can also be detrimental towards those around them. Secondhand smoking is a contributor to health issues. Society is so much more accepting smoking, but it can still have repercussions for people in the proximity. In close packed areas, inhaling smoke from cigarettes can also trigger asthma attacks and other breathing issues. Additionally, smoking can lead to addiction and addiction to anything is usually negative.

Motivation: I am completely against smoking because of how detrimental it is to the human body, but more than that, growing up with asthma made me very conscious of when people were smoking around me. On campus, I see countless people smoking and numerous cigarette butts lying around in the sidewalks. This is bad for the environment as well as public health.

Information and Arguments: The most necessary statistics to pursue this topic would be effects of secondhand smoking on people. This is crucial because the ‘public health’ issue is concerned with the people around the smoker. Additionally, it would be helpful to know about other campuses that have implemented a smoke free policy and how that has changed both the environment and the public health of the school. My key arguments revolve around the consequences of smoking both for the user and the public. As stated before, secondhand smoking is a thing and should be a major concern for everyone, but most importantly those with breathing conditions such as asthma.

Researched Argument Topics

The three potential topics that I’m considering for my researched argument are sustainability, affirmative action, and student debt. I like each of these topics because they can be examined not only on a societal level, but also on a campus level. I also think that they’re all topics that I won’t get bored with, and haven’t been “overdone”. For sustainability, my question is “How can colleges work towards creating a more environmentally and socially sustainable campus environment?”. I’m interested in exploring the topic of sustainability because it’s something that I’m learning about in my sociology class. We recently had the co-founders of a company called AndAgain come to speak to our class. AndAgain is a company that upcycles jeans, which has many environmental and socially sustainable benefits. For instance, it reduces the amount of pesticide use and water wasted in the production of jeans. What’s great about this company is that its co-founders are both students here at UD. This made me start to think about what other steps the UD community can take in order to make our campus more sustainable. I’m also interested in the topic of affirmative action because it’s something that I’ve heard of before, but don’t know a lot about. For this topic, my question is “Is it fair for colleges to favor one group of students over others based solely on factors like race and gender?”. Since I don’t know much about this topic, I hope that through my research I’m able to determine which side of the argument I tend to lean towards. The third topic that interests me is student debt, particularly now that I’m a college student myself. My question is “To what extent should colleges reduce their tuitions in order to make a college-level education more accessible?”. It’s mind-boggling to me how drastically the price of college tuition has increased over the past decade or so. The tuition for an out-of-state student at UD is over $30,000! Now that I have these three topics in mind, I need to decide which topic will inspire me to write the strongest researched argument.

College tuition over the years

Health and Wellness (Team Amigas)

The cause that I’d like to focus on for this project is promoting health and wellness. For starters, I love working out and learning about nutrition, so the cause is something that’s personal to me. I think that health and wellness are often taken for granted in our society given that over 70% of adults in the U.S. are considered to be overweight or obese according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Unfortunately, obesity tends to be passed on from generation to generation as parents teach their kids unhealthy lifestyle habits which the kids then adopt themselves and pass on to their kids and so on. In order to stop this cycle, we must educate kids about things like nutrition and ways that they can stay active so that they know how to live a healthy lifestyle early on.

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Prevalence of self-reported obesity among U.S. adults by state

At the University of Delaware, there are some measures already being taken in order to promote student health and wellness. For instance, there are several clubs on campus that revolve around this concept including the nutrition and dietetics club, the healthy hens club, and the student wellness and health promotion club. There are also clubs that students can join that offer free fitness classes such as the Zumba club. If students aren’t interested in taking any of these classes, they can go to a class at the Little Bob or work out there on their own. While exercise has many physical benefits, it also has many mental benefits because it provides a healthy outlet for people to relieve their stress rather than resorting to unhealthy coping methods such as drug or alcohol use.

Similarly, the U.S. government has also taken steps to promote health and wellness through campaigns like the “Let’s Move” campaign which was introduced in 2010 under the Obama administration to fight childhood obesity. Although health and wellness are already being promoted on campus and nationally, I think it’s clear that our country could benefit more from this cause.

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Fight Against the Travel Ban

Obviously, movements that developed and spanned earlier in history did not have equivalent access to the Internet and television that current ones have. Movements and activist groups in the recent years are fortunate in the ability to spread their message through the use of websites, social media, and the news. Lucky for me, I am looking into the Travel Ban imposed by President Trump that quite literally dates back to last month. The internet is amazing in that it can connect millions of people without having to leave the comfort of home, but it also displays numerous sources of information for the public. Most of the news about the ban have to do with the onsite protests against the ban at airports, but the internet plays a major role in channeling the negative energy towards the ban into articles, stands, and even memes. The ‘millennials’ have a huge voice now and through social media they voice their issues. All of the negative backlash on social media for the travel ban most likely had a major impact on the decision by the court to put a hold on the ban. Additionally,  Videos and pictures caught at some of the protests circulate around the internet and this cause more and more people to join in the movement because they get to see what is occurring without actually being there to witness.

no-ban-no-wall

A specific webpage should be enticing and really stand out to the viewer. The homepage should immediately grab people’s attention and the page should not let go until the viewer is convinced of the message. Use of videos, audio, and pictures is almost necessary because large spans of text turn the average observer away. For my webpage, I want the visitor to be moved right as the click to the page, so large text saying “No Ban No Wall” would immediately press the concern. Videos of people protesting at airports, I feel, would also really stand out and give the page an initial jump.

Organization is also key to a successful webpage. Similar to the Campaign Zero website, my website needs to have clearly labeled section such as problem, solution, research, articles, etc. I think this user-friendly setup could actually sway people towards the argument at hand because of the fluidity of navigation. All in all, I really want my website to contain  vivid pictures and colors, energizing video clips, and a simple and thought out method of maneuvering throughout the site. End users, or viewers, would hopefully see that and be drawn in and maybe end up supporting the cause.

A Mass Movement Before the Rise of Social Media

Since my movement took place in the 1960s (Anti-Vietnam War), the online platform was not a part of this movement. The internet was being invented around the same time that this movement was gaining support and strength, so the supporters of the movement had to find another way to spread their message. As I was doing research, I discovered that a big way that this anti-war movement spread and caught attention was through music. Since online platforms like Twitter, Facebook, news sites, etc. didn’t exist to spread a mass message quickly and to a lot of people, many popular artists spread the word through their songs. Some examples of these artists are Jimi Hendrix, Country Joe and the Fish, Bob Dylan, and John Lennon. Many of these artists were prominent figures and constantly had attention from the press as well, which also helped to spread their message.

This particular movement has ended, but there have been many other peace protests and anti-war protests since then, such as the anti-Iraq War demonstrations. Since this movement has ended, I think the purpose of my website will be more to provide information about this historical movement more than trying to get people to join a particular movement/belief. In order to portray a comprehensive view of this movement, I want to incorporate a lot of media into my website. I’m planning to embed multiple videos of popular anti-war songs so the audience can see how music was used heavily as a political tool at the time. It’s quite different to the way music is now. I’m also going to map out this movement in a timeline with pictures so the audience can easily visualize the process of the anti-Vietnam War movement. My website will also include multiple pages focusing on different parts of the movement (Purpose, About, Cause, etc.) so that the information is well-organized and easy to browse through. WordPress also has a helpful tool called Text Widget which allows you to add text or HTML to the sidebar of your site. I was thinking I could use this tool to add links to related resources or links to my other pages.

Although the online platforms were not used at the time of this movement, I can use the accessibility and interactivity of online platforms in order to inform my audience of this particular movement in history.

Social Media Builds(?) Healthy Minds

Online platforms and social media are very important for the mental health movement because both the problem and the solution are spread through the Internet. For example, the ideologies of the “pro-ana” movement, a counter movement to the mental health movement that promotes anorexia as a lifestyle, is spread through blogs and photos. Here is an example:

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On the other hand, it is very easy to spread awareness of the mental health problem to many people with the use of online platforms and social media. For example, Active Minds, a college-centered foundation that reduces the stigma of mental health, has a website, a Twitter account, a Facebook page, a Pinterest site, and a YouTube channel. Each of these social media sites are used differently; for example, the YouTube channel has videos about mental health, the Pinterest site has inspirational photos promoting a positive mental health, and the Twitter account has statistics about mental health. On Pinterest, Active Minds has different boards for different topics that allow users to browse the topics they are interested in. On the main website, Active Minds has a central column for current news, different pages for different resources, and side bars dedicated to helping the readers get involved. In general, the front page has previews of information found in the pages, and users can read more in depth by clicking on individual pages.

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I want to format my blog a similar way to document the mental health movement. I will break my blog into the follow three pages: “Definition,” “Examples,” and “Conclusions”. On the “Definition” page, I will give background on the movement and provide statistics so that readers unfamiliar with the topic will understand the issue. On the “Examples” page, I will document the mental health movement at different colleges. On the “Conclusions” page, I will evaluate the success of the movement. Similar to the Active Minds website, on the front page, there will be boxes with previews of the information from each of the pages. My page will be useful both to users who know little and to users who know a lot about the movement. Individuals of different knowledge levels can customize their experience on my blog by reading the different pages.

A Platform for Change

As technology becomes increasingly relevant in the twenty-first century, the circulation of thought is increasing in speed and efficiency, allowing ideas to spread from person to person, then state to state, and sometimes, even country to country, within a matter of days. The movement I have chosen to delve into, the anti-rape culture/sexual assault on campus movement, uses the power of online platforms in several ways, one of which is to provide an anonymous way for victims to reach out and speak about sexual assault without disclosing their identity. On platforms such as Twitter, Instagram, and Tumblr, victims can discuss their feelings with others who understand what they are going through, and talk about how to cope with post traumatic stress and anxiety that prevent them from reaching out or talking about what happened to the police or school authorities. Another way this movement uses online platforms is to reach out to people about different gatherings, marches, and protests that are happening across the country such as the Anti-Rape Marches and Slut Walks in Philadelphia, Los Angeles, New York, and several other large metropolitan areas. Facebook groups, especially, are conducive to bringing people together for these events because once one person clicks the “Interested” or “Going” buttons, all of their Facebook friends can see this, and the event instantly gains exposure to all of their hundreds/thousands of friends. In this way, the word gets out quickly, and suddenly, after a mere two days of the event’s online fruition, hundreds of thousands of people are exposed to it, and many of them will decide to attend.it.jpg

Media is also incredibly important to my movement, in that humans, by nature, are visual beings, and photographs and videos tend to appeal to their emotions more than just words. Personally, I feel very empowered when I see pictures on Instagram and Tumblr of women holding up signs that say things like, “I was wearing this when I was raped”, while they are dressed in a simple tee-shirt and jeans, implying that rape has nothing to do with the victim’s clothing, provocative or not. It is NEVER the victim’s fault. Because such visuals are so powerful, I will include many on my webpage, especially on the home tab, in order to catch visitor’s attentions and appeal to their pathos the same way that Instagram posts from the marches appealed to mine.

Mapping the Movement: Campus Sexual Assault

Now that I’ve started to build my own website on WordPress, I’ve thought a lot about what an online platform means for the movement against campus sexual assault. One benefit of creating an online platform for this movement is that online platforms are accessible to everyone who has some sort of access to the internet, and are therefore an effective way of publicizing information in a fast and affordable manner. Another benefit of using an online platform for this movement in particular is that it heavily relies on the personal stories of sexual assault victims as well as statistics related to sexual assault, which can both be incorporated in a website format. These stories and statistics both serve as powerful tools in making an impact on readers. The personal stories cause readers to feel compassion for victims, causing readers to want to get involved within the movement in some way. The statistics, on the other hand, provide a certain shock factor for readers. For instance, reading that over one in ten (11.2%) college students experience sexual assault may cause some readers to feel enraged by such high levels of assault, and, as a result, make it an issue personal to them on an emotional level. I plan on using a variety of media sources, including videos of campus protests, graphic representations of statistics, and lots of images on each page in order to make my website an interactive experience for readers. I also plan on organizing my website into distinct pages (i.e. problem, solution, protests, resources) in order to make navigating through the site as easy as possible. Overall, I’m looking forward to the challenge of creating my own website for the movement against campus sexual assault as it’s an issue I feel very passionate about.

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