Resources for my Voluntourism and Education Research Paper

Works Cited

Bailey, Andrew W., and Irene K. Fernando. “Decoding the Voluntourism Process: A Case Study of the Pay It Forward Tour.” Journal of Experiential Education. Association for Experiential Education, 24 Feb. 2017. Web. 28 Apr. 2017.

Cermak, Michael J., Jonathan A. Christiansen, Amy C. Finnegan, Aideen P. Gleeson, Shelley K. White, and Darcy K. Leach. “Displacing Activism? The Impact of International Service Trips on Understandings of Social Change.” Education, Citizenship and Social Justice 6.1 (2011): 5-19. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. Sage Publications, Mar. 2011. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

DuPre, Carrie. “Alternative Break Service Trips.” Campus Commons. Wiley Online Library, July-Aug. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

“Friends.” Barbie Savior. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

Gumpert, Joanne, and John W. Kraybill-Greggo. “Affecting Attitudes Toward the Poor Through Group Process: The Alternative Break Service Trip.” Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 10.3 (2005): 7-22. ERIC. 2005. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

Levine, Diane. BMC Medical Education: Medical and Pharmacy Student Concerns about Participating on International Service-Learning Trips. 15 Vol. Biomed Central, 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

McCall, Daniel, and Ana S. Illtis. “Health Care Voluntourism: Addressing Ethical Concerns of Undergraduate Student Participation in Global Health Volunteer Work.” HEC Forum. PubMed, 31 July 2014. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

Smith, Megan. “The Cost of Volunteering: Consequences of Voluntourism.” University of Pennsylvania Scholarly Commons. Department of Anthropology, Apr.-May 2015. Web. 28 Apr. 2017.

Walton, Natalie. “Not Voluntourism: UDaB Talks Community Engagement and Social Justice – The Review.” The Review. N.p., 03 Apr. 2017. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

Zane, Damian. “Barbie Challenges the ‘white Saviour Complex’.” BBC News. BBC, 01 May 2016. Web. 28 Apr. 2017.

How I use these sources

My research paper focuses on the topic of voluntourism and how to combat the negative effects of voluntourism.  Sources 3, 6, and 9 introduce service trips and serve as an example of how service trips are run.  Sources 1, 2, and 5 focus on the benefits of service trips and the best practices of service trips.  These sources provide support to my personal beliefs on how service trips are best presented and identifies the possible pitfalls of service trips.  Sources 4, 7, 8 and 10 present the benefits and issues that occur as a result of voluntourism and provide research that validates each other and the belief that voluntourism has become negative.

Source 2

This source speaks about the benefits of service trips to students and the importance that service trip have which allow students to become stronger activists.  It is written by a group of students and “examined students’ perceptions of social change activities and assessed students’ affinity toward service and activism independently as well as the perceived relationship and interaction between the two”.

Source 3

The third source also provides examples of student’s reactions to service trips and the benefits that they have.  These examples work best to corroborate my own experences and beliefs.  This source  also speaks about the best practitces of service trips in order to make sure that service trips do not lean towards negative voluntourism.

Source 4

The barbie survivor Instagram and blog were written by two students who were fed up with the white savior complex and the negative effects of voluntourism.  Their work has been commented on by others as a way of describing and educating students on how to work to stay away from portraying work in a voluntouristic manner.

Source 5

The fifth source is written on research that was completed on the group work inherent in service trips and the benefits of strong leadership.  This source provides research on how students change and grow as a result of  service trips.





Thesis: Even though some high-ranking persons and politicians deny climate change, blatantly opposing scientists’ findings, students on college campuses gained a renewed interest in starting movements related to sustainability and reducing the effects of climate change.


Douglas, Karen M., and Robbie M. Sutton. “Climate change: Why the conspiracy theories are dangerous.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, vol. 71, no. 2, Mar. 2015, pp. 98-106. PAIS ProQuest, doi:10.1177/0096340215571908. Accessed 23 Apr. 2017.



Beller, Carolyn. “Students Push College Fossil Fuel Divestment To Stigmatize Industry.” npr, 11 Apr. 2015, Accessed 23 Apr. 2017.



Anderson, Craig A., “Belief Perseverance.” Encyclopedia of Social Psychology, 2007, pp. 109-110, Accessed 23 Apr. 2017.



Mingle, Jonathan. “Fighting for the Future: Activists and scholars debate the role of social movements in climate change.” Environment@Harvard, vol. 5, no. 1, 2013, pp. 1-7, Accessed 21 Apr. 2017.


Each source in an essay has a different purpose. Some provide definitions so that the reader is “on the same page” as the author when reading the essay. Others provide a unique viewpoint on controversial topics. Still others give specific information about news events and happenings. Regardless of the type of source, each will contribute information that is vital to the thesis of the paper.

To begin, source 1 provides a lot of information about why people believe in climate change conspiracy theories. This source is reliable because I found it using an online database, and it is published by scientists. I can mostly use this to explain why there is a disagreement within the population and among highly influential people such as politicians and scientists. The extracted arguments from the source provide psychological reasons why climate change conspiracy theories are so effective in persuasion. I took these psychological reasons and put names and descriptions to them using other source. For example, source 3 is simply a definition of the psychological key term “belief perseverance,” and this is a trusted source because the author is a professor in the Department of Psychology at Iowa State University. In conjunction with source 1, I used source 3 to better explain the psychology associated with climate change conspiracy theories. Therefore, the readers of my essay will better understand the reasons behind conspiracy theories, and, overall, it will strengthen my argument because I specifically defined and named the terms. These two sources, in cahoots, will complement my overall topic by providing adequate background on how climate change conspiracies have created skepticism in the general population.

Next, I used sources 2 and 4 together to strengthen my argument. These two sources are more directly related to my thesis because they give examples of movements related to climate change. Both sources are reliable: source 2 is from an impartial news website and source 4 is from Harvard’s website. Source 2 focuses more on a specific student-led divestment movement while source 4 provides many examples of movements. Source 4 created a backbone summary of different methods of activism, which helped me form the multiple points of the argument while source 2 provided a specific example of one method of activism. This strengthens the argument because of how detailed and specific source 2 is. Together, the two sources add to the overall ideas of my essay because they provide a strong argument in favor of my thesis.

Collectively, these sources direct where my paper will go. For example, because I used psychological terms early in my paper, I should stick with that theme. I will provide a psychological lens with which to view the other arguments in my essay in order to stay consistent. In conclusion, these sources shaped my paper by providing succinct examples that can be easily formed into arguments that support my thesis.


  1. Bekoff, Marc, and Richard Louv. Rewilding Our Hearts. Novato, CA: New World Library, 2014. Print.
  2. Bump, Jermome. “Biophilia and Emotive Ethics.” Ethics and the Environment 19.2 (2014): 57. Web.
  3. Howell, Andrew J., Raelyne L. Dopko, Holli-Anne Passmore, and Karen Buro. “Nature Connectedness: Associations with Well-being and Mindfulness.” Personality and Individual Differences 51.2 (2011): 166-71. Web.
  4. Zhang, Weizhe, Eben Goodale, and Jin Chen. “How Contact with Nature Affects Children’€™s Biophilia.” Biological Conservation 177 (2014): 109-16. Web.

Source #1: This source is a book by professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Mark Beckoff, who is also an huge advocate for animals and the environment. In the book he discusses ways to go about wildlife conservation from a new perspective of reconnecting to the natural world and breaking down boundaries that humans have created with nature. He explains his theories as to why humans have disconnected from the natural world, and gives his insight as to how we can go about “rewilding”. This novel overall highlights the exact premise of my paper (Why advocacy is important, why humans have disconnected and how to reconnect) minus the parts that discuss how to do it on a smaller scale, college campus level.

Source #2: This source goes along the same route as Beckoffs in regards to explaining how emotions and the feelings associated with biophilia are beneficial in reconnecting people to the environment, more specifically other animals. I feel like the aspect of this work that discusses our connection with animals will be beneficial to my portion of the paper that looks at how humans have come to disconnect. The fact that humans see themselves as the superior animal is a perception that disconnects us from them and therefore does not make feel people inclined to help conserve.

Source #3: This source utilizes two different studies done that analyze nature’s effect on people’s well being and mindfulness, using the Biophilia hypothesis as a predictor as to why this occurs. The researchers in this source are trying to explain how nature impacts emotion, psychological well being and overall mental health using the studies (both studies were correlational and compared how connected the people scored themselves with the environment and their well being). This source will give me actual scientific data for explanations and applications as to why/how the Biophilia hypothesis works.

Source #4: This source is a study done by Chinese researchers that looks at the children’s attitudes towards animals and nature and measurements of their contact with nature and general attitudes about it and conservation. The study came to find that when children are in less contact with nature or animals, for example in urban areas, they have less passion for conservation and not as much of an attitude of any kind about nature. This provides another source of scientific evidence supporting the biophilia hypothesis and I can utilize it when discussing that and how important it is to get people involved in any nature/environmental activities.

Together, my sources collaborate to explain why contact with nature is important for well being of people and for advocacy because people are more inclined to want to conserve the environment if they feel a personal connection to it. The sources provide a mixture of scientific studies that provide the evidence for the claims and general explanations and examples of how reconnecting to nature is beneficial for everybody.

Sources for Immunization Exemptions


  1. Armstrong, Eamon C. “Reaction to “New Meningococcal Vaccine Recommendations under Consideration”.” [“Comment on article by J. C. Turner”]. Journal of American College Health, vol. 54, no. 2, September/October 2005, pp. 127-128. EBSCOhost, doi:10.3200/JACH.54.2.127-128.
  2. Orenstein, Daniel G.1 and Y. Tony2 Yang. “From Beginning to End: The Importance of Evidence-Based Policymaking in Vaccination Mandates.” Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, vol. 43, Spring2015 Supplement s1, pp. 99-102. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/jlme.12228.
  3. Sun, Lena. “Trump Energizes the Anti-Vaccine Movement in Texas.” The Washington Post, 20 Feb. 2017, Accessed 16 Apr. 2017.
  4. Wombwell, Eric,, et al. “Religious Barriers to Measles Vaccination.” Journal of Community Health, vol. 40, no. 3, June 2015, pp. 597-604. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s10900-014-9956-1.

My first source argues that the benefits of widespread meningococcal meningitis vaccinations aren’t worth the cost. Armstrong believes the cost of the “herd immunity” that must be present for vaccines to be effective is so large that it outweighs the few lives saved. I’m conceding to this more finance-based counterargument because of his strong evidence and my inability to statistically refute his claim; however, I will be refuting it on a moral ground, suggesting we can’t put a price on a human life.

My second source explains the authority of the government to force immunizations, and then establishes how and when the government should use this power. I am using this source to explain a state’s right to enforce vaccinations, provided they are safe for the public. I will then use other sources to prove the safety of the vaccines. This source also supports my argument for the necessity of increased vaccine education. It lists countries which have some of the highest vaccination levels but lack compulsory immunizations. It claims these countries’ easily accessible vaccine information leads to their pro-vaccine public. Thus, it reinforces my opinion that education should be used to counter the anti-vaccine message.

My third source covers the history and claims of the anti-vaccine movement and the current events of both the pro- and anti-vaccine movement. I’m using this source to give the reader context for understanding my argument, to explain counterarguments, and support my anti-personal belief exemption argument. This source cites many reputable studies refuting the arguments of the anti-vaccine movement and explains the dangers of the increasing number of personal belief exemptions, supporting my belief in eliminating them.

My final source addresses the concerns of religious communities with the safety and morality of the measles vaccine. It also considers how these communities are contributing to high rates of unvaccinated children. This source is important for both my argument on religious exemptions and increased vaccine education. It highlights each mainstream religion’s stake in the immunization argument and explains why religious exemptions are necessary. It also discusses how some members of these communities use religious exemptions when truly worried over safety, rather than religious conviction. Immunization refusals due to safety qualify as personal belief exemptions. Thus, religious exemptions, in this case, are being inappropriately used. This supports my argument that the terms for receiving a religious exemption should be made stricter to ensure they are given for purely religious concerns. The source also explains a study done on Amish parents who asked for religious exemptions. Eighty-two percent of the parents claimed they would vaccinate their children if given proof of their safety. This supports my argument for more education on vaccines to counter the anti-vaccine message and alieve the fears of parents.

My sources 1, 2, and 4 give evidence for very specific parts of my argument, while my source 3 provides a broader coverage of my topic. Source 3 supports the elimination of personal belief exemptions; sources 2 and 4 encourage greater vaccine education; source 4 also substantiates my claim for stricter religious exemptions; and source 1 provides a counterargument. All my sources work together to showcase what the issue is, my belief, and what should be done for the future.


Sexual Assault Resources

Gray, Matt J, Christina M. Hassija, and Sarah E. Steinmetz. Sexual Assault Prevention on College Campuses. , 2017. Internet resource.

A group of Psychology professors co-author comprehensive findings on the prevalence of sexual assault on college campuses. Their findings best estimate that one in five (20%) females experience sexual assault during their college years; 5% of males also experience unwanted sexual contact. The authors also delve into the emotional and psychological consequences of sexual violence. They find that one-third of these individuals will experience some form of post-traumatic stress disorder because of their assailant(s), not to mention higher frequencies of anxiety, depression, and substance abuse.

Maiuro, Roland D. Perspectives on College Sexual Assault: Perpetrator, Victim, and Bystander. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, 2015. Internet resource.

Researchers in a national study evaluate the common factors involved in sexual assault on college campuses. Researchers indicate two key findings. For one, consumption of alcohol can increase the likelihood of victimization. College females who report high levels of alcohol consumption are twice as likely to be sexually victimized. Perpetrators are also more likely to commit sexual misconduct after consuming alcohol. Another key finding is that campus sexual assaults are most often perpetrated by someone known to the victim.

Not Alone: The First Report of the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. , 2014. Internet resource.

In the first ever report of the White House task force to protect students from sexual assault, the Obama administration talks about the actions and recommendations that can be done in order to help not only the aftermath of sexual assault, but prevention of it altogether. The actions include better education on bystander intervention, better training of campus staff and faculty, and giving survivors of assault more control in confidentiality in reporting and receiving help after incidents.

Paludi, Michele A. Campus Action against Sexual Assault: Needs, Policies, Procedures, and Training Programs. , 2016. Internet resource.

This resource frames sexaul assault as an abuse of power not only on the perpetrator, but on the faculty and schools themselves.  Paludi claims through her research that schools are keeping sexual assault hidden.  She intends to teach these schools a strategic process for preventing and responding to complaints regarding sexual assault.  Little is being done to teach the faculty how to respond to these types of instances and when these instances do arise, little is even done about them.  This resource goes onto talk about the differences in race, gender, and overall student groups as being factors of sexual assault.  Title IX is listed along with a detailed breakdown of sexual assault.
In summary, the above sources aim to gauge to first understand the scope of sexual assault on college campuses. First, how prevalent is it? And, who is most affected? My paper will then go into the ‘why’ of sexual assault. I will examine the factors that go into the victim and perpetrator relationship, as well as the bystander phenomena. Moreover, I hope to understand what steps have been taken, and why they have been ineffective thus far in eliminating sexual assault. In accordance with this, I will present findings that show how sexual assault can be properly prevented on a cultural, and an inter-personal scope.

Blog Post 2

Working Bibliography

1.   Brooks, Andrew. Clothing Poverty:The Hidden World of Fast Fashion and Secondhand  Clothes. London: Zed Books, 2015. Print.

2.  Cline, Elizabeth L. Overdressed: The Shockingly High Cost of Cheap Fashion. New York:Portfolio/Penguin, 2012. Print.

3.  Joy, Annamma. “Fast Fashion, Sustainability, and the Ethical Appeal of Luxury Brands.” Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body, and Culture 16.9 (2012): 273-295.   Literary Reference Center. Web. 15 April 2017.

4.  Norum, Pamela S.  “Trash, Charity, and Secondhand Stores: An Empirical Analysis of Clothing Disposition.” Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal 44.9(2015): 21-36. Academic Search Premiere. Web. 15 April 2017.

5.  Swanson, Karin. “Serengetee: The Fashionable Way to Give Back.” Huffington Post:      2 October 2013. Web. 15 April 2017.


The above named sources will be used to examine several aspects of fast fashion and the resulting secondhand clothing crisis.

The first source, Clothing Poverty, uses both stories and data to demonstrate how the clothing, textile, and recycling sectors have played a major part in making different world regions rich or poor. The information is illuminating in that it explains how fast fashion retailers and even charity shops actually perpetuate poverty. This source will be useful to open the reader’s eyes to aspects of familiar fast fashion shops they most likely never thought of.

The second source, Overdressed, expands on what is explained in Clothing Poverty and highlights more of the environmental ramifications. Because it uses familiar stores like H&M and Forever 21 to make its points, this source will likely be more relatable to young readers. It exposes a different take on what the seemingly innocent practice of buying super cheap clothing really does to the society and environment.

The article by Joy details how our society’s desire for luxury fashion is met with incredible cheap clothing and lots of it. This is more of a psychological look at why we as a nation are obsessed with buying so many clothes. This can be used to illustrate the sometimes hard to grasp fact that actual luxury brands, rather than faux luxury brands, can ironically unite the ideals of fashion with those of environmental sustainability partly because of its limited affordability.

Research in Norum’s article analyzed the relationship between socioeconomics and demographic characteristics pertaining to getting rid of old clothing. Younger consumers ages 18-34 were most likely to donate to secondhand stores associating this act with kindness and helpfulness. This article will be used to show that it is the education of the consumer, rather than a moral issue or greed, which needs to be addressed for both the financial and environmental aspects.

Finally the article by Swanson introduces the company Serengetee which has taken the tee shirt for a cause idea to a new level by designing the pockets of its tees with local fabric from 28 countries around the world. This article can be used to really connect with college students because not only does it profile this inspiring company, but it offers an alternative to other fast fashion; one that is stylish and affordable. This article helps make the whole paper more relevant to young people.

All of the above sources will help to support my claim that by becoming more educated about the ramifications of fast fashion and the resulting secondhand clothing crisis, consumers will be more likely to support sustainable designers and retailers and change their wasteful attitude about clothing.



  1. MacGillivray, L., Ardell, A. L. and M. S. Curwen. (2010). Supporting the literacy development of children living in homeless shelters. The Reading Teacher, 63(5), 384-392.
  2. Pibetaphihq. “Read Lead Achieve and The Story of One.” YouTube. YouTube, 01 July 2013. Web. 28 Apr. 2017.
  3. “Champions Are Readers.” Pi Beta Phi Fraternity For Women. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2017.
  4. Eppler, Marion A, Marsha Ironsmith, Stephanie H. Dingle, and Marissa A. Errickson. “Benefits of Service-Learning for Freshmen College Students and Elementary School Children.” Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. 11.4 (2011): 102-115. Print.

My paper focuses on how colleges students can aid impoverished children to a brighter future  by giving them better access to education. These are just a few of the sources that help bring my paper together and flow as a whole. Each one references it’s own individual topic but reinforces the next so that everything connects easily. Source #1, “Supporting the Literacy Development of Children Living in Homeless Shelters”, discusses homeless children and their reading needs. It touches upon the difficulty of children’s’ learning experiences because of their poor situations and living conditions. I am using this article to define the importance of literacy and education in a child’s life. The article talks about how school could be a refuge for these children during rough times and teach them coping strategies. Education can lead them out of these detrimental situations, and that is what i intend to argue in my paper. This leads me into source #2 which is an actual example of a sorority’s philanthropy (Read>Lead>Achieve) run for this exact reason. It is a youtube video, made to be an advertisement, of small kids talking about their future and how learning to read can help them become whatever they want to be in life, an emotional connection to the argument. This connects to source #3 which is a program run by the same sorority called “Champions are Readers” which includes mentors teaching the children to read and giving them access to books that they would otherwise not have. Eventually, I lead into source #4 which explains that not only is this idea for children education advocacy a huge benefit to the children, it can also benefit college students. This source explains an entire experiment done to measure if this idea is indeed true. This can help students identify themselves, learn patience, and define career goals. All of these sources come together in a way that proves my argument accordingly.


Armstrong, Elizabeth A., Laura Hamilton, and Brian Sweeney. “Sexual Assault on Campus: A Multilevel, Integrative Approach to Party Rape.” Social Problems 53.4 (2006): 483-99. Women’s Studies International. Web. 4 Apr. 2017.

Martin, Patricia Yancey. “The Rape Prone Culture of Academic Contexts.” Gender & Society 30.1 (2016): 30-43. Women’s Studies International. Web. 26 Apr. 2017.

National Sexual Violence Resource Center. “Statistics About Sexual Violence.” National Sexual Violence Resource Center . National Sexual Violence Resource Center, 2015. Web. 26 Apr. 2017.

RAINN. “Campus Sexual Violence: Statistics.” RAINN. RAINN, 2015. Web. 26 Apr. 2017.

My first source, an article called “Sexual Assault on Campus: A Multilevel, Integrative Approach to Party Rape” was incredibly useful in my section about why college campuses are prone to higher sexual assault cases.  This source really helped create a stronger case for how drugs and alcohol lead to sexual crimes.  It also touches on the social structures of college campuses and how that may contribute to a more perceived sexualized peer cultures.

My second source, “The Rape Prone Culture of Academic Contexts” was one of the most helpful sources I had when I was discussing how fraternities and athletic organizations on college campuses.  This source really broke down these organizations and what they were founded on, and analyzed their values that make them more prone to sexual crimes.  Similarly, it gave many real life examples of fraternity brothers saying some pretty obscene things about women.  In some campuses, it acknowledges how athletes and even frat boys may be looked as inferior to some, and for this reason they can get away with more and can have a superior air to them.  This source also evaluated the party scene and what characteristics of it can lead to this crime.

My third source, the National Sexual Violence Resource Center, provided really good statistics that I think really help add to the urgency of the issue.  One of the big things I want to do in this essay is get reader’s to see that this is a huge issue, so these statistics help build to that point because numbers can help make it real for people so seeing those numbers can drive a point home to people and can grab their attention towards the beginning of the essay to pull the reader in more.

My fourth source is RAINN, which is overall a really good source that was very insightful when learning more information about sexual assault in general. This source had really great statistics that helped strengthen my essay.  Similarly, this website had a lot on safety and prevention and about public policy, and just a lot of good information that could be really helpful in my prevention paragraph.  They had a specific part on safety for students about alcohol, and warning signs and what consent looks like, all things I can add to my essay in the prevention section.

All of these sources work together to help strengthen and add insight to my essay.  Each one offers different information, yet it all can be intertwined to go off of and support one another.  I was glad that I could get a good idea from one that could easily be reinforced by another idea in another source.  Similarly, they all blended really well together and all made sense when tied together.  I am happy that my sources support one another and my paper as a whole because I feel that my essay is significantly made stronger with points from each of them.  My sources all work together to help prove my overall point about sexual assault on college campuses, their prevalence, and how we can help prevent it.

Bibliography- Matt Kains

Berri, David . “Exploitation Is Everywhere in Men’s College Basketball.” Time. Time, 14 Nov. 2014. Web. 26 Apr. 2017. <;.
Mccann, Michael. “Illegal Defense.” Virginia Sports and Entertainment Law Journal (2004): n. pag. Web.
ONE AND DONE/BEN SIMMONS. Perf. Ben Simmons. Showtime, 2016. Television. Showtime. Web. <;.
Wahl, Grant. “Ahead of His Class Ohio high school junior LeBron James is so good that he’s already being mentioned as the heir to Air Jordan.” Sports Illustrated, n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2017.
Weinreb, Michael. “College Basketball’s One-And-Done Rule Fails Everybody.” VICE Sports. Vice, 08 Jan. 2016. Web. 26 Apr. 2017.
How I am using these sources:
I have read through all of theses sources and I have picked out the information that is most useful for my research argument. For example, the first source talks about exploitation of college athletes, which is one of the main points of my argument against the “one and done” rule. More specifically, the article mentions that the UNC Tar Heels basketball team brought in $20.9 million in revenue, and explains how the players receive nothing as compensation, which is a point that I included in my paper. The second source that I included was written by a sports lawyer from the University of New Hampshire. He frequently mentions the profits that the broadcasting companies make due to college basketball superstars, and how “one and done” players are very important for these companies. The third source is a documentary about Ben Simmons, who was a one and done recently drafted number one overall. He is very opposed to the rule and I will use his personal anecdotes as support to my argument. My fourth source is the Sports Illustrated feature on LeBron James when he was Simmonsa junior in high school. I used it simply to provide background information that I included in my introduction. My final source on the above list is from Vice Sports, and it provides an interesting angle on the issue that not many other sources talk about. It states that the one and done superstars are not as crucial to good viewership and quality of play as one might think. For example, the author writes that 80% of the minutes in one of the biggest games last season, Oklahoma-Kansas, were played by juniors and seniors.


Bibliography (MLA)

1) “Energy Use at the University of Delaware.” University of Delaware Sustainability, The University of Delaware, Accessed 24 Apr. 2017.

2) Hoffman, Melody K. “Campuses Growing Greener.” Jet, vol. 117, no. 16, 19 Apr. 2010, p. 35. EBSCOhost,

3) Knox, Nora. “Green Building Costs and Savings.” USGBC, U.S. Green Building Council, 25 Mar. 2015, Accessed 24 Apr. 2017.

4) “Sustainability.” EPA, Environmental Protection Agency, 18 Oct. 2016, Accessed 24 Apr. 2017.

5) Sutter, John, and Rachel Rodriguez. “COP21: 9 Questions for a Renewable Energy Expert.” CNN, Cable News Network, 10 Dec. 2015, Accessed 24 Apr. 2017.

How I Use These Sources

Source #1 focuses on the University of Delaware’s plan to become more environmentally sustainable. According to this website, “in 2008, the University set a goal to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 20% by 2020.” This information demonstrates that the University is taking steps towards becoming a “greener” campus, which leads to my argument that other colleges and uniLOGO-Sust-LG-108suqp.pngversities should follow in UD’s footsteps. Source #2 explains how more colleges are now offering sustainability degrees to students. According to this article, 200 colleges and universities across the nation currently offer a sustainability degree. In my paper, I use this information to argue that more colleges should offer sustainability degrees to students considering that there are over 5,000 colleges in the U.S. (200/5,000 = only 4%). I use source #3 to discredit the opposing side’s argument that converting buildings in an environmentally sustainable way is costlier than traditional building renovations. This is meant to show readers that I’ve acknowledged the other side’s views, yet still believe that mine is correct which gives me ethos. Source #4 provides background information on environmental sustainability in the U.S. and the role of the EPA which I use in my introduction to introduce the topic. Source #5 is another source I use to challenge the opposing side as it explains how converting to more environmentally sustainable practices will actually create more jobs than it replaces, contrary to popular belief. Overall, I feel good about each of these sources and what they add to my paper.