Bibliography – Blog Post 2

1.Glover, Derek, and Sue Law. Improving Learning: Professional Practice in Secondary Schools. Buckingham, Open University Press, 2002.

This source explains how teachers can be effective in the classroom and maximize students’ learning capacity. It defines what a successful school is and what the culture and leadership of a successful school looks like, and specifically discusses some of the obstacles that a teacher may face in creating an effective learning environment, such as an overcrowded classroom. This connects to my idea that teachers must be qualified to create such an effective learning environment and tackle these challenges, and while it was not published within the last 5 years, it is still relevant because it focuses on methodology and theory rather than current events. I hope to use this source to define successful learning environments and highlight ways in which an unqualified teacher may have difficulty creating one.

2. Elvira, Quincy, et al. “Development and Validation of a Supportive Learning Environment for Expertise Development Questionnaire (SLEED-Q).” Learning Environments Research, vol. 19, no. 1, Apr. 2016, pp. 17–41., doi:10.1007/s10984-015-9197-y.

This source discusses a psychological measure that was implemented in some schools in the Netherlands to measure the importance of a supportive learning environment in developing students’ expertise in school subjects. While this was implemented outside of the U.S., the theories behind the research itself can be applied to the idea in my paper that unqualified teachers may have more difficulty creating a supportive learning environment to facilitate students’ development of expertise.

3. Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica, et al. “The Moderating Effect of School Type on the Relationship between School-Based Health Centers and the Learning Environment.” Social Work in Public Health, vol. 27, no. 7, 12 Nov. 2012, pp. 699–709., doi:10.1080/19371910903323815.

This article focused on the idea that school type may have some effect on the existence of health centers in schools, which in turn may affect the learning environment of these differing types of schools. While it is a bit of a circular connection with the health centers in the schools between types of schools and learning environment, I hope to use this to show that types of schools do have an effect on the learning environment, and that teachers play an important role in that, particularly since some of the questions that the researchers surveyed the parents on had to do with the teachers in their children’s schools.

4. Opdenakker, Marie-Christine, and Jan Van Damme. “Differences between Secondary Schools: A Study about School Context, Group Composition, School Practice, and School Effects with Special Attention to Public and Catholic Schools and Types of Schools.” School Effectiveness and School Improvement, vol. 17, no. 1, 16 Feb. 2007, pp. 87–117., doi:10.1080/09243450500264457.

This source focused intensively on the differences between types of schools, specifically public and Catholic, which was one of the primary focuses of my thesis, and the effects the schools had on their students. While it was conducted in the Netherlands, the basic idea behind the study is the same as in my paper – i.e. that the learning environment may vary by school type and thus by teacher preparation/certification requirements.

A lot of the sources I found were about the learning environment and its efficacy and types of schools. Originally, my argument was going to be that variations in teacher certification requirements affect this, but I haven’t found much (or any) research on this. It seems that my paper is heading more in the direction of the idea that the learning environment will vary by school type in terms of culture and efficacy.

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Sources

Sources:

[1]

Afzal, Brenda, et al. “Children’s Environmental Health: Homes of Influence.” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 124, no. 12, Dec. 2016, pp. A209-A213. EBSCOhost, Web. 11 Apr. 2017. <http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=89c518de-f9db-470a-aea6-cf4824310600%40sessionmgr4008&vid=0&hid=4002&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=120230899&db=8gh>.

[2]

American Lung Association. “State of the Air® 2016.” (n.d.): n. pag. American Lung Association, 2016. Web. 11 Apr. 2017. <http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/state-of-the-air/sota-2016-full.pdf>.

[3]

Lallanila, Marc. “What Is the Greenhouse Effect?” LiveScience. Purch, 12 Apr. 2016. Web. 23 Apr. 2017. <http://www.livescience.com/37743-greenhouse-effect.html>.

[4]

“Overview of Greenhouse Gases.” EPA. United States Environmental Protection Agency, 14 Apr. 2017. Web. 18 Apr. 2017. <https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/overview-greenhouse-gases>.

[5]

“Ozone Basics.” EPA. United States Environmental Protection Agency, 05 Apr. 2017. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <https://www.epa.gov/ozone-pollution/ozone-basics#effects>.

Source 1: This source focuses on environmental factors that affect the health of children. What I would use for my paper is the information this article has about ground-level ozone and its relationship to asthma in children. Ground-level ozone levels are related to the amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, so it connects to the health of children. When you consider the 6.3 million children under 18 years old in the United States who are affected by asthma, it creates a strong argument as to why reducing levels of GHGs that lead to higher levels of ground-level ozone would be beneficial. This source also has many other sources in its works cited that have information concerning asthma statistics and relate asthma to environmental factors.  

Source 2: “The State of the Air 2016” is a 157 page pdf with all data gathered by the American Lung Association about the quality of air in the US in 2016. There are a few specific sections of the pdf that would benefit the paper, such as  “People at Risk,” “What Needs to Be Done,” and “What You Can Do.” People at Risk has some statistics that stand out, such as “More than half the people (more than 52.1%) in the United States live in counties that have unhealthful levels of either ozone or particle pollution” (8). With some standout statistics like this about how the air quality affects the health of such a large number of people in the country, it strengthens the argument that more needs to be done to clean our air.

Source 3: “What Is the Greenhouse Effect?” explains the science behind the greenhouse effect. This source benefits the paper because, while most people have heard of the greenhouse effect, there is still a large number of people who do not know the science behind it. It adds logos to the paper by explaining this concept and making sure the reader is aware of how gases in the atmosphere and thermal radiation relate to climate change.

Source 4: In this source, the EPA separates the main categories of greenhouse gases and briefly explains how these gases are released into the atmosphere, which is an important part of the paper. It is hard to argue how we can begin to reduce emissions without first explaining how the gases are released. This source also explains the three main factors of how each of the greenhouse gases impact climate change, which is helpful in deciding which gases the paper will spend more time focusing on.

Source 5: The last source listed has information about the effects of ozone on human health. While this source has links to other sources with additional facts about the health effects of ozone, but it does provide basic information about the health effects, such as worsening “bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma,” and it acknowledges that increased ozone can lead to a need for more medical attention. This source brought to my attention that there is an entire other audience the paper could mention that I originally hadn’t thought of — those with emphysema or bronchitis. Since many of the sources concerning asthma have to do with children, and thus the audience might target parents too much, this source is a good start for finding information that could sway adults who may not care too much about asthma, but who may care more about other breathing-related health concerns.

All together, the sources work to make the effects that greenhouse gases have on human health the primary concern of the paper. After source 3 is used to explain the science behind the greenhouse effect, the other sources can be used to move the paper toward explaining how the greenhouse effect impacts human health. Primarily, they allow the focus to be on respiratory health issues; however, there are other potential health issues that could be mentioned if supplementary sources are found, such as an increased number of heat-related incidents (i.e. heat stroke), sun poisoning, and skin cancer.

Sources

  1. “40th Anniversary of Title IX: The Next Generation.” Title IX. The MARGARET Fund of NWLC, 2017. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.
  2. “Counseling and Psychiatry.” Center for Counseling & Student Development. University of Delaware , n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2017. <http://sites.udel.edu/counseling/>.
  3. Campbell, Rebecca, Emily Dworkin, and Giannina Cabral. “An Ecological Model of the Impact of Sexual Assault on Women’s Mental Health.” Trauma, Violence, and Abuse 10.3 (2009): n. pag. Sage Journals. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.
  4. Oluo, Ijeoma. “‘13 Reasons Why’ Scared The Shit Out Of Me — And It Should Scare You Too.” The Establishment . N.p., 14 Apr. 2017. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.
  5. Mowbray, Carol. “Campus mental health services: Recommendations for change.” 76.2 (2016): n. pag. APA PsycNET. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

Source 1: This source outlines what Title IX entails and the actual impacts it has on college campuses. It’s important that I include this as a source because a portion of my paper is focused on how sexual assault on college campuses affects women’s health. Title IX is always a part of the conversation concerning sexual assault on campuses. I mention a personal experience I’ve had on campus and how Title IX played a part in that so it’s very important that I’m able to clearly define and explain it.

Source 2: I specifically mention the University of Delaware several times in my paper to make it more relevant to students on our own campus. Part of the point that I am arguing is that there are not enough qualified resources on campus for student’s who are struggling with mental illnesses. This site is from UD’s own page and discusses the options available to students.

Source 3: This is a very important source because it comes from an academic journal and fits into my paragraphs concerning the effects of sexual assault on the mental health of women on campuses. I can use this source to solidify and add credibility to my points arguing that sexual assault, a huge issue on campus, can worsen the already debilitating affects of mental illnesses for students.

Source 4: 13 Reasons Why is an extremely popular show that is very prevalent with students on colleges campuses as it just recently came out. It deals very graphically with issues of rape and suicide and has received a good amount of criticism for the way that it portrays depression and suicide. The show does make use of trigger warnings but as a part of my paper I am arguing that these warnings are largely ineffective and the show’s graphic images can still have a hugely negative affect on those who actually deal with the issues discussed. This article discusses from a personal perspective how the show had an extremely negative affect on her son who struggles with depression and suicidal tendencies.

Source 5: This article from an academic journal discusses how mental health series on college campuses need to be reformed in order to be more effective. This is the main point that I am making in my paper and this article accentuates all of the points that I am attempting to prove in my paper.

My sources each relate directly to a topic I am discussing in my paper and blend well together in a way that allows me to have evidence to back up my statements. They each are very descriptive and I am happy that the ones that I have found so clearly relate to the main topics I want to cover.

Research Paper Sources

  1.  “Nonmedical Use of Adderall[R] among Full-Time College Students. The NSDUH Report.”Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. SAMHSA’s National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI). P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20847-2345. Tel: 800-729- 6686; Tel: 301-468-2600; Web Site: http://ncadi.samhsa.gov, 07 Apr. 2009. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED525060&gt;.
  2. Abuse, National Institute on Drug. “Trends & Statistics.”NIDA. N.p., 24 Apr. 2017. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics&gt;.
  3. Griffin, Kenneth W., and Gilbert J. Botvin. “Evidence-Based Interventions for Preventing Substance Use Disorders in Adolescents.”Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 2010. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2916744/&gt;.
  4. “Consequences.” Consequences of College Drinking. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <https://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/statistics/consequences.aspx&gt;.

1.)

The first source on the nonmedical use of Adderall among college students explores the negative effects of unprescribed substance use with a focus on Adderall. The article tackled every angle with a focus on statistics, specific cases, and even insight into behavioral patterns. For example, the articles stated that college aged students who used Adderall non-medically were more likely to have used other illicit drugs without a prescription. Information much like this is present throughout the entire article and such information thoroughly backs my claims. This article was crucial in providing several statistics for my paper such as substance use rates comparing college aged individuals with non-college aged individuals. Additionally, this article served as a connector between drug abuse and the college campus which is the central focus of the paper.

2.)

This source is a page purely dedicated to statistics revolving around substance abuse hence the name of the site (National Institute of Drug Abuse). The numbers within this web page were very valuable in proving just how massive the issue of drug abuse is, thus backing my points even further. This source, as well as other statistical sources, were necessary because numbers never lie and do a much better job convincing readers than words usually can. An example of the data found on this page would be the toll on our nation in response to substance abuse including drugs such as tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit drugs. In a paper such as mine where there are several points to counter, having statistics to back any and all of my claims is very beneficially in alleviating any bias.

3.)

This source from the US National Library of Medicine discussed methods of preventing Substance use disorders as well as factors that lead to substance abuse. In particular, this article emphasized using family and environment based programs to help deal with the disorder because most drug issues stem from one’s family problems or the environment that the patient surrounds his/herself with. The article agrees with my thesis that drug abuse is a growing problem in the nation and deserves considerable attention. This article provides several solutions to the problem that I could implement in my paper, thus leading me to believe that this article would benefit the paper.

4.)

This source is credible in that the cite is called College Drinking Prevention with a .gov at the end and that there is a list of sources sited that all back the numbers within the page. For these reasons, I deemed this source worthy of placement within my paper. The central argument of my research paper is that there is an outstanding issue surrounding drug as well as alcohol use. The drug portion has already been covered by previous sources, but this source specifically covers the alcohol area. The statistics held within emphasize the harmful effects of drinking and what it causes, whether that be violence, arrest, or sexual assault. The aim of this paper is to back the idea of heightened monitoring of drug and alcohol consumption, so these numbers mesh nicely with this focus.

 

Together, these sources put an explanation point at the end of each of my claims about the harmful effects of excessive drug and alcohol use. They provide ample statistics, real world examples, and potential solutions that, when combined, can hopefully convince anyone that there is a real problem in the way most universities handle drug and alcohol issues. By using the US as a whole and then narrowing the scope to college campuses, the outlying issues become prominent early, and from there the numbers state the remainder of the story.

 

 

Research Argument Sources

Sources:

1.) Grinberg, Emanuella. “Trigger warnings, safe spaces: Your guide to the new school year.” CNN, 26 Aug. 2016, www.cnn.com/2016/08/26/us/university-of-chicago-trigger-warnings-safe-spaces/. Accessed 28 April 2017.

2.) Lukianoff, Greg and Jonathan Haidt. “The Coddling of the American Mind.” The Atlantic, Sept. 2015, www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/09/the-coddling-of-the-american-mind/399356/. Accessed 28 April 2017.

3.) Heer, Jeet. “Generation PTSD: What the “Trigger Warning” Debate Is Really About.” New Republic, 20 May 2015, www.newrepublic.com/article/121866/history-ptsd-and-evolution-trigger-warnings. Accessed 28 April 2017.

4.) Charnis, Daniel. “My Rights vs. Your Trigger Warning.” Chronicle of Higher Education, vol. 62, no. 25, 2016, pp. B10-B11, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eue&AN=113401897&site=ehost-live. Accessed 28 April 2017.

5.) Lockhart, Eleanor Amaranth. “Why Trigger Warnings Are Beneficial, Perhaps Even Necessary.” First Amendment Studies, vol. 50, no. 2, 2016, pp. 59-69, www.dx.doi.org/10.1080/21689725.2016.1232623. Accessed 28 April 2017.

What does each source do/add to the argument?

1.) This source from CNN gives the basic background on what trigger warnings/safe spaces are and why they are now being heavily debated on college campuses. The article discusses the letter the University of Chicago recently sent out to incoming freshman in order to warn them that the school does not condone the use of trigger warnings because they believe that trigger warnings censor learning. This source not only provides some background on trigger warnings, but also allows me to begin looking at the opposition to trigger warnings in my paper on the basis that they censor learning and prohibit a free learning environment.

2.) This source opposes trigger warnings and feels that they allow college students “a way out” of dealing with things that make them uncomfortable. It also claims that in today’s politically correct society, one’s emotions are safeguarded because people are afraid to offend others in what they say. This will contribute to the argument against trigger warnings because it will challenge the idea that trigger warnings mean nothing more than just warning/preparing those who need them. This source also brings up the idea of exposure therapy in the classroom and how trauma victims need to face their problems instead of avoid them. I will highlight this argument in my paper when discussing the opposing side, but then rebuttal it with another source that I found (source 5).

3.) This source questions the necessity of trigger warnings and the expansion of the definition of PTSD to include many things other than just after combat (like sexual assault, domestic abuse, etc.). This source will allow my argument to focus on how much is too much when it comes to trigger warnings. It will allow me to question whether trauma on college campuses is defined too loosely or not. It will also question some of the uses of trigger warnings specifically and target the limits to which trigger warnings are actually needed.

4. ) This source looks at a specific time when a trigger warning was expected by an individual on a college debate team in order to determine if they would be triggered or emotionally charged during the debate of a topic, and therefore would want to bypass the particular topic and opt for another one. This source is not necessarily against trigger warnings, but rather, what they have the potential to do when used incorrectly. Although trigger warnings were wanted to expand their original definition to block or prevent the discussion of topics in this case, this article will add the idea of how trigger warnings can be used incorrectly to censor topics as well as the idea of ambiguity and how there is no specific standard as to which topics need trigger warnings.

5.) This source supports trigger warnings on the basis that they do not stop distressing material from being taught, but rather, allow triggered students to mentally prepare for distressing material to come so that they can have the opportunity to think critically about the topic just like their non-triggered peers. This source adds the idea of equality of opportunity in learning and supports the idea that trauma victims should be emotionally prepared so that they have an equal chance at openly discussing the material. This source also brings up the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and how PTSD patients are mandated to receive reasonable accommodations, to which trigger warnings can be accommodations that are one of the least disruptive options. This will allow for me to add to my argument that trigger warnings do not hurt those who are not triggered, they only serve to help those who are. Finally, this source also provides the rebuttal to the idea of exposure therapy in the classroom, from the opposing side, and will add to my side the idea that a classroom is not a therapist’s office and that teachers are not trained to practice exposure therapy.

Greek Life and Mental Health Sources

  1. Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J., Kate B. Carey, and Michael P. Carey. “Health Behavior and College Students: Does Greek Affiliation Matter?” Journal of behavioral medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Feb. 2008. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. This is a scholarly article written by NIH which is a government organization. This is an incredibly credible source that explores the topic of Greek affiliation from a strictly psychological standpoint.
  2. Chapman Body Matter. pp. 1–47, Chapman Body MatterThis is a source that focuses on women, specifically. This is a longer (47 page) article that really goes in depth about the psychological impacts of sorority involvement. As a more detailed source, it will provide me with a plethora of information and statistics/results from various psychological studies about the impact of joining Greek organizations. It explores both sides of the argument and presents concurrences from various studies that have been done.
  3. Mercuro, Anne, et al. “The Effects of Hazing on Student Self-Esteem: Study of Hazing Practices in Greek Organizations in a State College.” The Effects of Hazing on Student Self-Esteem: Study of Hazing Practices in Greek Organizations in a State College – Ramapo Journal of Law & Society, Ramapo College, 6 Mar. 2014, http://www.ramapo.edu/law-journal/thesis/effects-hazing-student-self-esteem-study-hazing-practices-greek-organizations-state-college/. Accessed 28 Apr. 2017. This source provides a counterargument that discusses, specifically, the psychological effects of hazing on fraternity men.
  4. Bruce, Michelle. “Greek Life Builds Confidence and Success.” The Mu, Monmouth University, 22 Feb. 2011, blogs.monm.edu/mu/2011/02/22/greek-life-builds-confidence-and-success/. Accessed 28 Apr. 2017. This is a source that underscores my argument by discussing a personal account about the positive effects of Greek life.
  5. Donato, Andrew De, and James Thomas. “The Effects of Greek Affiliation on Academic Performance.” https://Sites.duke.edu/Jamesthomas/Files/2015/07/De-Donato-Thomas-Greek-Effects-Draft.pdf, Duke University, 5 July 2015, https://sites.duke.edu/jamesthomas/files/2015/07/De-Donato-Thomas-Greek-Effects-Draft.pdf. Accessed 28 Apr. 2017. This is an article published by Duke University that provides insight from both sides of the argument.

An important note to take into account when researching sources for a paper is to  make sure the sources are credible by filtering them by top-level domain. I did not utilize any sources that were not either “.edu”, “.gov”, or “.org” because then I would not be able to tell whether or not they were written by a reliable author with valid information about the subject on hand. I also made sure to include a variety of sources, including a personal account written on a university blog. However, while looking up sources to use, I found that the greatest proportion of reliable, relevant sources I chose to include came from universities that had done previous research about the impact of Greek life on mental health in order to provide prospective participants with conducive information that could influence their choice as to whether they decide to join or to opt out. As for the information, I included sources that argued both sides. One counterargument source was one that discussed hazing in fraternities and some negative mental impacts it may have such as PTSD, extremely out of range stress and anxiety levels, and an overall prolonged state of fear. On the other hand,  I mainly included sources to back up my thesis that also provided evidence for the argument that joining Greek life has an overall positive impact on mental health.

Blog Post 2- Bibliography

Works Cited

Hunsberger, Peter K., and Seth R. Gitter. “What is a Blue Chip Recruit Worth?     Estimating the Marginal Revenue Product of College Football Quarterbacks.” Journal of Sports Economics 16.6 (2015): 664. ProQuest. Web. 28 Apr. 2017.

Kaburakis, A., and Pierce. Journal of Sport Management: Is it Still “in the Game”, Or    has Amateurism Left the Building? NCAA Student-Athletes’ Perceptions of Commercial Activity and Sports Video Games. 26 Vol. Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc, 07/01/2012. Web. 28 Apr. 2017.

Rezania, Davar. The Effect of Coaching Practices on Psychological Contract Fulfillment     of Student- Athletes Abstract. Physical culture and sport studies and research 71.1         Jan 2016: 21. Versita. 28 Apr 2017.

Sack, Allen L, and Ellen J. Staurowsky. College Athletes for Hire: The Evolution and        Legacy of the Ncaa’s Amateur Myth. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1998. Print.

Source 1: This source explains how scholarships are determined in college and how salaries are usually determined in professional sports. There are formulas to estimate the amount of revenue a player will provide to the organization through wins and performance. I plan to use this source to show how players bring in a considerable amount of revenue, but are not compensated fairly for their value.

Source 2: This source explains how the NCAA has turned into more of a business rather than a place for young players to perfect their skills as athletes before moving on to the next level of sports. In fact, some players are even taken advantage of and they are unaware of what their signature to play actually entails. I plan to use this source to make a call to action moving forward, in terms of providing clarity.

Source 3: This source explains the correlation between athletes maintaining a spot on a college team and the psychological impact on fulfilling expectations. I plan to use this source to show how promises to remain on a team incentivizes players to play above expectations and train harder. However, this tactic could be a way for programs to also make more revenue through wins and accolades.

Source 4: This source also explains how the NCAA has turned into more of a business than an amateur sports league. It talks of how student-athletes are more like employees rather than students. I plan to use this source to parallel the forty hour work week of a full time employee at any job to the approximate forty hours dedicated to practices, weight training, conditioning, and contests.

My sources work well together because they cover all parts of my thesis statement. Players bring in a large amount of revenue, most programs will stop at nothing to increase this revenue, the aspect of amateurism has basically vanished from college sports, and most players are not compensated fairly for their performance. Some of my sources will provide statistics of money and salaries, while others will provide insight to the thought processes, or psychological aspects of this issue.

Research Paper Sources

Works Cited

Haslerig, Siduri J.1, haslerig@ou.edu and Kristina M.2 Navarro. “Aligning Athletes’ Career

Choices and Graduate Degree Pathways.” Journal of Career Development (Sage

Publications Inc. ), vol. 43, no. 3, June 2016, pp. 211-226. EBSCOhost,

doi:10.1177/0894845315597472.

Kane, Dan. “UNC Records Show Deep Dependence on Fake Classes.” Newsobserver. N.p., 7 Nov. 2015.

Web. 28 Apr. 2017.

Rampell, Catherine. “Grading College Athletes.” The New York Times. The New York Times,

15 Oct. 2010. Web. 28 Apr. 2017                    

Wolverton, Brad. “Missed Classes, a Changed Grade, and One Disillusioned Adviser.” Chronicle of         

Higher Education, vol. 62, no. 7, 16 Oct. 2015, pp. A20-A24. EBSCOhost,

search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eue&AN=110414835&site=ehost-live.

Source 1: This source explains a study on the career pathways and aspirations of fourteen football players at Division I schools.  The study was undergone by two college professors who aimed to further understand how life experiences  can influence graduate degree choices and other aspects of career aspirations.  This source displays how participation in sports can have a profound effect on an athlete’s future, due to the circumstances it presents,  and how those circumstances can sometimes prove detrimental.

Source 2: The second source is an article that speaks about the infamous scandal at the University of North Carolina where fake classes were constructed to ensure that athletes would remain eligible for athletic participation.   This highlights a prime example of how universities can sometime place athletics as a priority over the educational value of their athletes.  This example displays how athletes can be placed in a negative learning environment due to their athletic situation, proving destructive for their learning and setting them up for a less successful future.

Source 3: The third source simply provides statistics on the GPA’s of college students and compares the GPA’s of athletes vs the GPA’s of non-athletes.  This proves useful as it provides one clear and simple way of conveying how participation in sports can prove detrimental to one’s learning.  Additionally, the statistics also provide the discrepancy in GPA’s between athletes and non-athletes for each gender, displaying who is more affected by such activities and whether or not it may be linked to certain sports.  This source provides clear-cut statistics that make it impossible to refute the fact that, on average, the GPA of college athletes is lower than that of their non-athlete counterparts, and this can be used to defend the notion that the education of college athlets may be lacking. 

Source 4: The last source, similar to the second one, provides another example of how college athletes are not obtaining the education they need, this time due to coaches.  This source talks about how a coach at UCLA attempts to get an athlete’s grade raised by requesting an academic advisor to approach a teacher to do so.  This highlights underhanded actions undergone at colleges that prove detrimental to students learning as they feel that they can pass without trying as hard and truly learning material.  Furthermore, it sets a poor example on impressionable college students, who may develop some notion that grades will just be handed to them.

As a whole, these sources work together to support my thesis that college athletes often lose educational value and not properly prepared for the future compared to their non-athlete counterparts.  The variety of the sources, whether it be statistics, real-life examples, or observational studies, provides different avenues to help support my claim.  They display that the issue clearly persists ad that their must be reform to ensure that it does not continue to grow. 

 

Sources

Bibliography

Billak, Bonnie. “Second Language Acquisition at the Early Childhood Level: a 5-Year Longitudinal Case Study of Pre-Kindergarten Through First-Grade Students.” Tesol Journal. 4.4 (2013): 674-696. Print.

Kuo, Li-Jen, Gloria Ramirez, Marin S. de, Tae-Jin Kim, and Melike Unal-Gezer. “Bilingualism and Morphological Awareness: a Study with Children from General Education and Spanish-English Dual Language Programs.” Educational Psychology. 37.2 (2016): 94-111. Print.

Peçenek, Dilek. “A Longitudinal Study of Two Boys’ Experiences of Acquiring Italian As a Second Language: the Influence of Age.” International Journal of Bilingualism. 15.3 (2011): 268-290. Print.

Sawyer, Brook E, Patricia H. Manz, and Kristin A. Martin. “Supporting Preschool Dual Language Learners: Parents’ and Teachers’ Beliefs About Language Development and Collaboration.” Early Child Development and Care. (2016): 1-20. Print.

My first source by BIllak called “Second Language Acquisition at the Early Childhood Level: a 5-Year Longitudinal Case Study of Pre-Kindergarten through First-Grade Students” strongly supports my first argument that teaching Spanish to students early in their education helps with their brain development. Since it follows students through the years in question it provides first hand statistical and categorical evidence for the argument about the benefits of Spanish education.

My second source by Kou called “Bilingualism and Morphological Awareness: a Study with Children from General Education and Spanish-English Dual Language Programs” supports the argument that teaching Spanish to students early in their education helps with their brain development. It delves deeper into the science of brain development and how learning two languages can improve it.

My third source by Peçenek called “A Longitudinal Study of Two Boys’ Experiences of Acquiring Italian As a Second Language: the Influence of Age” supports my argument that it is easier to learn a second language at a young age and understanding multiple languages will benefit the children socially. Since the study explores language learning process of two brothers at different ages learning a second language, it shows how the learning process differs between ages. It also shows how the younger and older brothers’ social interactions differed between themselves and natives due to their age of learning their second language.

My fourth source by Sawyer called “Supporting Preschool Dual Language Learners: Parents’ and Teachers’ Beliefs about Language Development and Collaboration” works well with all of my other sources. In this source it goes into the perceptions by educators and parents of kids who are in the dual language program of what learning a language at an early age actually does. This source has a lot of statistics and direct quotations from interviews that I could use throughout my paper in most of my arguments.

Overall, my sources interact well with each other because they all support ideas that are in my thesis but focus on different aspects. The source by Sawyer can draws more on people’s emotions when I use the quotes from the parents and teachers, whereas most of my other sources rely on logic with facts and observations from studies. They build well onto each other, each bringing new information to my paper as a whole.

Sources

What my sources do for my paper